Periodontics is the specialty of dentistry that studies supporting structures of teeth, diseases, and conditions that affect them. Periodontal disease can refer to any condition that affects the gums and other structures supporting your teeth. However, bacteria cause the most common forms of periodontal disease. These bacteria grow in a film called dental plaque that sticks on the tooth surfaces next to the gums. The bacteria can cause inflammation and infection. Periodontal diseases thus begin with bleeding gums, but can lead to tooth loss if allowed to continue.

Periodontal Surgery: If you're diagnosed with periodontal disease, your periodontist may recommend periodontal surgery. Periodontal surgery is necessary when your periodontist determines that the tissue around your teeth is unhealthy and cannot be repaired with non-surgical treatment.

Bone Graft: A bone graft is used to recreate bone and soft supporting tissues lost due to gum disease. It's also called regenerative surgery. First, the periodontist will separate the gums from your teeth to gain access to the roots and bone. The roots will be thoroughly cleaned. The defects in the bone will be filled in with a bone graft material. Then they will be covered with a physical barrier.

Periodontal Plastic Surgery (Gum Repositioning): In treating a smile cosmetically, the gums must be considered as the framing of that smile. Not only must they be treated for health and function, but also for their cosmetic architecture. This is called gum repositioning.